Vitamin ADEK is essential. Check out why.


Vitamin ADEK are the 4 fat-soluble vitamins in the human diet that are essential:-

  1. Vitamin A
  2. Vitamin D
  3. Vitamin E
  4. Vitamin K

Fat-soluble vitamins are most abundant in high fat foods and are much better absorbed into your bloodstream when you eat them with fat.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A (retinol), is important for:-

  • Body’s natural defence against illness and infection
  • Vision in dim light
  • Healthy skin and the lining of some parts of the body (for example, nose)
Symptoms of Vitamin A Deficiency

Based on, there are several symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency .

  • Night blindness – Trouble seeing in low light. Eventually lead to complete blindness at night.
  • Xerophthalmia – Eyes may become very dry and crusted, possible damage the cornea and retina.
  • Infection – Experience more frequent health issues as they will not be able to fight off infections easily.
  • Bitot spots – Buildup of keratin in the eyes, leading to hazy vision.
  • Skin irritation – Skin issues, ie. dryness, itching & scaling.
  • Keratomalacia – Eye disorder involving drying and clouding of the cornea.
  • Keratinisation – Process where cells become filled with keratin protein, die, and form tough, resistant structures in the urinary, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts.
  • Stunted growth – Delay growth/ slow bone growth or stunted growth in children.
  • Fertility – Challenges to conceive a child, and in certain cases, infertility.
Sources of Vitamin A
Sources of Vitamin A
Sources of Vitamin A

Good sources of vitamin A include:-

  • cheese
  • eggs
  • oily fish
  • fortified low-fat spreads
  • milk and yoghurt
  • liver and liver products such as liver pâté which is very rich in Vitamin A. However, you may be at risk of having too much vitamin A if you have it more than once a week (For pregnant ladies, you should avoid eating liver or liver products)

You can also get vitamin A by including good sources of  beta-carotene in your diet, as the body can convert this into retinol.

The main food sources of beta-carotene are:

  • yellow, red and green (leafy) vegetables, such as spinach, carrots, sweet potatoes and red peppers
  • yellow fruit, such as mango, papaya and apricots

Vitamin D

What is Vitamin D good for ?

Vitamin D helps regulate the amount of calcium and phosphate in the body which keeps bones, teeth and muscles healthy. Lack of Vitamin D is known as Vitamin D deficiency.

Symptoms of Vitamin D deficiency

Based on, symptoms of Vitamin D deficiency includes:-

  • Bones and muscles are the main organs affected causing bone deformities – rickets in children
  • Bone pain caused by a condition called osteomalacia in adults.
  • Nervous system, musculoskeletal system, and immunological system will be impacted

Sources of Vitamin D

Based on, there are several sources of Vitamin D.

  • Cod liver oil
  • Salmon
  • Sardine
  • Liver
  • Egg yolk
  • Fortified foods – such as some fat spreads and breakfast cereals
  • Direct sunlight on skin

Vitamin E

What is Vitamin E good for ?

Vitamin E is essential for our vision, reproduction, and the health of your blood, brain and skin. It also has antioxidant properties.

Symptoms of Vitamin E deficiency

It is uncommon in healthy people. Vitamin E deficiency is almost always linked to certain diseases where fat is not properly digested or absorbed, ie. Crohn’s disease, cystic fibrosis, and some rare genetic diseases like abetalipoproteinemia and ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED). Vitamin E needs some fat for the digestive system to absorb it.

Vitamin E deficiency can lead to nerve and muscle damage resulting in loss of feeling in the arms and legs, loss of body movement control, muscle weakness, and vision problems. Another sign of deficiency is weakening immune system.

Sources of Vitamin E

Based on hsph.harvard, sources of Vitamin E are found in plant-based oils, nuts, seeds, fruits and vegetables.

  • Wheat germ oil
  • Sunflower, safflower, and soybean oil
  • Sunflower seeds
  • Almonds
  • Peanuts, peanut butter
  • Beet greens, collard greens, spinach
  • Pumpkin
  • Red bell pepper
  • Asparagus
  • Mango
  • Avocado

Vitamin K

What is Vitamin K good for ?

Vitamin K helps to make various proteins that are needed for blood clotting and the building of bones. Prothrombin helps with blood clotting; Osteocalcin helps with healthy bone tissue.

Symptoms of Vitamin K deficiency

Based on msdmuanuals, these are the symptoms of Vitamin K deficiency.

  • The main symptom of vitamin K deficiency is bleeding (hemorrhage) —bruises on skin, from nose, from wounds, in stomach, or intestine. Sometimes bleeding in the stomach can cause bloody vomit. Blood may be seen in urine or stool, or stools may be tarry black.
  • In newborns, life-threatening bleeding within or around the brain may occur. Vitamin K deficiency is most common in infants, especially breastfed infants.
  • Having a liver disorder increases the risk of bleeding, because clotting factors are made in the liver.
  • Vitamin K deficiency also weaken bones, which may lead to Osteopenia or osteoporosis.

Sources of Vitamin K

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that comes in two forms – phylloquinone (found in green leafy vegetables) & menaquinones (found in animal food & fermented food).


  • Green leafy vegetables including collard and turnip greens, kale, spinach, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, lettuces
  • Soybean and canola oil
  • Salad dressings made with soybean or canola oil
  • Fortified meal replacement shakes


  • Natto (fermented soybeans)
  • Smaller amounts in meat, cheese, eggs

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